This document contains important information on trading in Equities/Derivatives Segments of the stock exchanges. All prospective constituents should read this document before trading in Equities/Derivatives Segments of the Exchanges.
Stock exchanges/SEBI does neither singly or jointly and expressly nor impliedly guarantee nor make any representation concerning the completeness, the adequacy or accuracy of this disclosure document nor have Stock exchanges/SEBI endorsed or passed any merits of participating in the trading segments. This brief statement does not disclose all the risks and other significant aspects of trading.
In the light of the risks involved, you should undertake transactions only if you understand the nature of the relationship into which you are entering and the extent of your exposure to risk.
You must know and appreciate that trading in Equity shares, derivatives contracts or other instruments traded on the Stock Exchange, which have varying element of risk, is generally not an appropriate avenue for someone of limited resources/limited investment and/or trading experience and low risk tolerance. You should therefore carefully consider whether such trading is suitable for you in the light of your financial condition. In case you trade on Stock exchanges and suffer adverse consequences or loss, you shall be solely responsible for the same and Stock exchanges/its Clearing Corporation and/or SEBI shall not be responsible, in any manner whatsoever, for the same and it will not be open for you to take a plea that no adequate disclosure regarding the risks involved was made or that you were not explained the full risk involved by the concerned stock broker. The constituent shall be solely responsible for the consequences and no contract can be rescinded on that account. You must acknowledge and accept that there can be no guarantee of profits or no exception from losses while executing orders for purchase and/or sale of a derivative contract being traded on Stock exchanges.
It must be clearly understood by you that your dealings on Stock exchanges through a stock broker shall be subject to your fulfilling certain formalities set out by the stock broker, which may inter alia include your filling the know your client form, reading the rights and obligations, do’s and don’ts, etc., and are subject to the Rules, Byelaws and Regulations of relevant Stock exchanges, its Clearing Corporation, guidelines prescribed by SEBI and in force from time to time and Circulars as may be issued by Stock exchanges or its Clearing Corporation and in force from time to time.
Stock exchanges does not provide or purport to provide any advice and shall not be liable to any person who enters into any business relationship with any stock broker of Stock exchanges and/or any third party based on any information contained in this document. Any information contained in this document must not be construed as business advice. No consideration to trade should be made without thoroughly understanding and reviewing the risks involved in such trading. If you are unsure, you must seek professional advice on the same.
In considering whether to trade or authorise someone to trade for you, you should be aware of or must get acquainted with the following:-
Risk of Higher Volatility
Volatility refers to the dynamic changes in price that a security/derivatives contract undergoes when trading activity continues on the Stock Exchanges. Generally, higher the volatility of a security/derivatives contract, greater is its price swings. There may be normally greater volatility in thinly traded securities/derivatives contracts than in active securities/derivatives contracts. As a result of volatility, your order may only be partially executed or not executed at all, or the price at which your order got executed may be substantially different from the last traded price or change substantially thereafter, resulting in notional or real losses.
Risk of Lower Liquidity
Liquidity refers to the ability of market participants to buy and/or sell securities/derivatives contracts expeditiously at a competitive price and with minimal price difference. Generally, it is assumed that more the numbers of orders available in a market, greater are the liquidity. Liquidity is important because with greater liquidity, it is easier for investors to buy and/or sell securities/derivatives contracts swiftly and with minimal price difference, and as a result, investors are more likely to pay or receive a competitive price for securities/derivatives contracts purchased or sold. There may be a risk of lower liquidity in some securities/derivatives contracts as compared to active securities/derivatives contracts. As a result, your order may only be partially executed, or may be executed with relatively greater price difference or may not be executed at all.
Risk of Wider Spreads
Spread refers to the difference in best buy price and best sell price. It represents the differential between the price of buying a security/derivatives contract and immediately selling it or vice versa. Lower liquidity and higher volatility may result in wider than normal spreads for less liquid or illiquid securities/ derivatives contracts. This in turn will hamper better price formation.
The placing of orders (e.g., “stop loss” orders, or “limit” orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amounts may not be effective many a time because rapid movement in market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders.
Risk of News Announcements
News announcements that may impact the price of stock/derivatives contract may occur during trading, and when combined with lower liquidity and higher volatility, may suddenly cause an unexpected positive or negative movement in the price of the security/contract.
Risk of Rumours
Rumours about companies/currencies at times float in the market through word of mouth, newspapers, websites or news agencies, etc. The investors should be wary of and should desist from acting on rumours.
High volume trading will frequently occur at the market opening and before market close. Such high volumes may also occur at any point in the day. These may cause delays in order execution or confirmation.
Trading on exchanges is in electronic mode, based on satellite/leased line based communications, combination of technologies and computer systems to place and route orders. Thus, there exists a possibility of communication failure or system problems or slow or delayed response from system or trading halt, or any such other problem/glitch whereby not being able to establish access to the trading system/network, which may be beyond control and may result in delay in processing or not processing buy or sell orders either in part or in full. You are cautioned to note that although these problems may be temporary in nature, but when you have outstanding open positions or unexecuted orders, these represent a risk because of your obligations to settle all executed transactions.
Effect of “Leverage” or “Gearing”
In the derivatives market, the amount of margin is small relative to the value of the derivatives contract so the transactions are ‘leveraged’ or ‘geared’. Derivatives trading, which is conducted with a relatively small amount of margin, provides the possibility of great profit or loss in comparison with the margin amount. But transactions in derivatives carry a high degree of risk. You should therefore completely understand the following statements before actually trading in derivatives and also trade with caution while taking into account one’s circumstances, financial resources, etc. If the prices move against you, you may lose a part of or whole margin amount in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, the loss may exceed the original margin amount.
Currency specific risks
Risk of Option holders
Risks of Option Writers
Trading through wireless technology/smart order routing or any other technology
Any additional provisions defining the features, risks, responsibilities, obligations and liabilities associated with securities trading through wireless technology/smart order routing or any other technology should be brought to the notice of the client by the stock broker.
SEBI study dated January 25, 2023 on “Analysis of Profit and Loss of Individual Traders dealing in equity Futures and Options (F&O) Segment”, wherein Aggregate Level findings are based on annual Profit/Loss incurred by individual traders in equity F&O during FY 2021-22.